Sweety Stay Original. 142 Questions 117 Answers 102 Best Answers 781 Points View Profile Sweety Asked: May 14, 20212021-05-14T22:55:08+05:30 2021-05-14T22:55:08+05:30In: UPSC PRELIMS What is Policy of Proud Reserve? Describe Robert Lytton’s Policy of Proud Reserve and Treaty of Gandamak. history Share Facebook 1 Answer Recent Kirti Delhi, India 226 Questions 326 Answers 19 Best Answers 1k Points View Profile Best Answer Kirti 2021-05-14T23:02:55+05:30Added an answer on May 14, 2021 at 11:02 pm This answer was edited. Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton (Viceroy of India from 1876 and 1880) Followed a forward policy towards Afghanistan. It is often called the policy of Proud Reserve. A Forward Policy is a set of foreign policy theories that apply to territorial ambitions and disputes, with a focus on gaining control of specified territories through invasion and annexation. Lytton proposed this policy to effect “the gradual disintegration and weakening of the Afghan power.” It led to Second Afghan War (1878 – 1880) and the Treaty of Gandamak was signed. The British secured certain border districts, the right to keep a Resident at Kabul, and control over Afghanistan’s foreign policy. The policy of Proud Reserve Explained: British poet and diplomat Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton was the Viceroy of India between 1876 and 1880. He was appointed by Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, a Conservative, at a time of intense competition between Britain and Russia over control of Central Asia. During his viceroyalty, Lytton worked to improve the Indian administration and supervised his government‘s much-criticized response to the Great Famine of 1876–78. During the 19th century, the problem of Indo-Afghan relations got inextricably mixed up with the Anglo-Russian rivalry. Britain was expanding colonial power in West, South, and East Asia, Russia was an expanding power in Central Asia and desired to extend its territorial control in West and East Asia. The British wanted to make Afghanistan a subsidiary state whose foreign and defense policies would be definitely under British control so that it could serve as a base for British expansion in Central Asia. However, the British success was short-lived. The national pride of the Afghans had been hurt and once again they rose to defend their independence. On 3 September 1879, the British Resident, Major Cavagnari, and his military escort were attacked and killed by rebellious Afghan troops. Afghanistan was again Invaded and occupied. Lord Lytton was severely criticized for his aggressive policy towards Afghanistan and was replaced by new Viceroy Lord Ripon in 1880. Ripon rapidly reversed Lytton’s aggressive policy and went back to the policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of a strong and friendly Afghanistan. Conclusion: The people were dissatisfied with Lytton’s unpopular and oppressive policies. The turmoil had spread across the country and was growing hazardous. His policies paved the way for the emergence of Indian nationalism. 4 Reply Share Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on WhatsApp Leave an answerCancel replyYou must login or register to add a new answer.Continue with FacebookContinue with Google Related Questions What was the liberal policy of Lord Ripon? What are Sufi Orders in India?